Alexander II, Emperor
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poor I stopped and looked timidly at you .... Streets were already empty, and on the occasion of the lunar night lights were out. He arrogated to himself the divine gift - the breath of life .. The last time I saw him about six years ago, when he finished the institute. Holding on to his outstretched glass decanter, he began to explain the composition of the invention and explained it to until someone from the guests did not feel that he was on his knees wet. - I'm not talking about this .. And the clean floor .....Read Contents Download
through it. Legs,
through it. Feet Turning right, he was in front of the cathedral. - Hey! Candles and wine! - Cried the seneschal. - Always happy to find that night - said again Sofron - though the gap, take this herb. - He suddenly stopped, then continued aloud: - Go, Glyndon, we'll meet again, but I'll ask you to respond only when a decision will need .. And the very face so beautiful that it could decorate the gallery of any palace. Oh, Tkachev, what a terrible mistake !.....Go Contents Download
right, nor Have mercy on me, and I'll save you. - Yes. And the last remnants of jealousy disappeared from the sensitive soul Wil .. Every one of them was struck by a sense of this contrast .. Glyndon blushed and stood up. Thus, the very desperation enthusiasm Rienzo guaranteed his safety and success. - Yes .. - They say the German pryntsa host hides, - said someone. But being an industrialist cultural and philosophical education, he seemed to feel for are some .....Read Contents Download
exoteric His face was distorted compassion. - What - when?. - With ten years in my house? This must be a randy Jane, the younger maid. William illegitimate hardly be so easy to win the British, as Walter legitimate - these Roman eunuchs ... George - he turned to Belvoir, which finally managed to escape from Stina - Give a hand to Cecilia: I remember, you invited her to the first cad .....Read Contents Download
Oleksandr II, emperor of all Russia, the son of Emperor Nicholas I and Empress Alexandra Feodorovna. Born in Moscow on April 17, 1818. Although his father at the time of his birth was just a great prince, however, because of childlessness Emperor Alexander I, Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich, who all stared at the VA as the future heir to the Russian throne. Until the age of six AA grew up under the immediate supervision of the mother and forcing him to female staff, along with sisters who were younger than him. Upon reaching the 6 years he has received a special educator, Captain KK Murder, military officer, wounded in the campaign of 1805 and 1807's, humane and gentle, with a fair and reasonable opinions, which managed to hold on a little of the Grand Duke. In 1826 it was decided to proceed with the formation of eight AA on special education plan developed by VA Zhukovsky, who was invited to lead the teachings of the heir. Zhukovsky, turned out to be an outstanding and thoughtful teacher, looked at his work as a noble mission and devoted himself to it completely. He did not separate the educational objectives of education and put himself first and foremost moral education, educational purposes. Trying to equip his pupil the necessary scientific information in all fields of knowledge, it is particularly sought to impress upon him the sublime view of the duties of man and the emperor. At the same time, he strongly and courageously fought for the escort of the young Alexander of premature influences court protection and military atmosphere, which was brought up and lived Nikolai Pavlovich. He openly declared his fears that the heir, from childhood accustomed to the parade ground, get used to "see the people only regiment in the barracks, the Fatherland". Aspirations Zhukovsky met with the opposite view of the Nicholas, who wanted his son was first and foremost a military man, and believed that otherwise it would be "lost in the present century. Therefore, A., contrary to the aspirations of Zhukovsky, was early accustomed to parades and have a boy of eleven was able to evoke emotion and joy when the Berlin court of his grandfather is his drill ceremonial gifts. A. Education, completed by 19 years of age, gave him the knowledge of five languages-Russian, French, German, English and Polish, "mathematics, physics, natural history, geography, history, the Orthodox catechism and the general principles of political economy, statistics and law . Military Sciences taught him both theoretically and practically (during camp fees). A. As a child, traveled with her parents in Moscow, Warsaw and Berlin (1829), at the end of exercise, he was sent in 1837 in what was then a large and difficult off-road trip to Russia, accompanied by VA Joukowsky, professor of statistics and Russian history KI Arseniev, and others. He visited not only most of the provinces of European Russia, but spent time in Tobolsk, where he met first with the Decembrists, about the plight of whom petitioned to Nicholas. Overall Review of Russia was, of course, the surface: the local authorities have tried everywhere to show heir, mainly only kazovye ends. Nevertheless, in some places had to stumble A. and serious abuses, such as in Vyatka, where the governor immortalized Herzen Tyufyayev. In 1838, Alexander traveled to Western Europe, where he spent almost a year, visit Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, England and Austria and visited with all the towns and villages, and having seen all the sights of European museums, libraries, parliaments and the decisive battles of modern times. Not been visited by only France, because of the rejection of the Emperor Nicholas to the then King of it, Louis-Philippe. During the trip, Alexander chose a bride in the person of the youngest daughter of Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt Marie-future Empress Maria Alexandrovna, which at that time had not yet turned 15 years old. Marriage of Alexander and Mary were done April 16, 1841. From this marriage were born sons: Nicholas (d. 1865), Alexander (d. 1894), Vladimir (died 1909), Alex (d. 1908), Sergei (died 1905), and Paul, his daughter: Alexander (died 1849) and Maria. " Since the beginning of the forties, along with the bearing of the various military duties, Alexander was assigned by Emperor Nicholas to engage in higher government agencies: the State Council, Committee of Ministers, the Finance Committee, etc. In 1842, Nicholas, when he left for the month of PETERSBURG, first doveril his son to replace him in the ongoing public affairs, which was repeated in 1845, with more prolonged absence of the Emperor for the border. In the second half of the forties and early fifties Tsarevich Alexander repeatedly appointed the chairman of special committees and discuss important current issues of public life, for example, a committee on the construction of the Nikolaev Railroad Committee on the lesson, NN Muraviev mouth of the Amur, the committees in 1846 and 1848 on the peasant question. The committee in 1848 AA showed the peasant question fairly conservative views, which was repeated in a more pronounced form in early 1850 over the issue of establishing "inventories" in the Lithuanian provinces. In 1849, after the death of the Grand Duke Mikhail Pavlovich, Alexander was appointed commander of the Guards and Grenadier Corps, and chief of all military educational institutions. Management recently brought him to General Rostovtsev, which has played a major role in the peasant reform. Since 1848, under the influence of revolutionary events in Western Europe, Alexander was, together with all the people who surrounded him, imbued with the reactionary spirit: On all major issues of that time, he fully shared the views of the reactionary past years of the reign. This mood lasted until Alexander the failures of Russian-Turkish war of 1853-54 years and completing the Crimean campaign of 1854-56 years, "failures that have forced a radical change to establish and develop at the end of the reign of Nicholas to the incredible size regime obscurantism and oppression. With this turning point in the history of Russian life coincided death of Nicholas (18 February 1855). In the Crimean War, we were defeated, despite all the heroism displayed by the defenders of Sevastopol, not because the allies attacked Russia put up against her enormous strength, but because our army was poorly equipped, and the delivery of munitions and supplies, although War took place on Russian territory, was much more difficult for us than for our enemies, because of the lack of satisfactory means of communication and transport means - and this, in turn, was associated with the absence of a developed industry and trade. This is compounded by the poor condition of health and medical unit in the army, the slowness and inefficiency of administrative orders for the acquisition of troops and a complete dissociation of the government with the moral and intellectual forces in the country, weak and downtrodden police regime. Finances were also in very poor condition; military spending accounted for, due to lack of credit, to cover reinforced the issue of paper money, a course which has fallen very low. The situation was so serious and threatening, that for all it became clear that immediate radical reconstruction of existing social and administrative system. The new emperor understood the need for radical changes and decided to abandon the system of police oppression, are keen to bring a public initiative and private enterprise. Treaty of Paris 18 (30) March 1856, which ended the Crimean War, has caused the international authority of Russia and its national pride significant damage, Russia had to cede part of Bessarabia, adjacent to the mouth of the Danube, and she pledged to keep the Black Sea, the number of military courts are not more than the one which includes Turkey, and in the Baltic Sea does not strengthen the Aland Islands. The manifesto of the world, listing these concessions, A. said, to comfort his subjects: "these concessions are unimportant in comparison with the burdens of a prolonged war and the benefits that are promised to calm the Power of God entrusted to us. But will these benefits are achieved cumulative efforts of our and all of our loyal subjects. With the help of celestial fish, always the good of Russia, but was adopted and improved its internal improvements; truth and love will reign in the courts it, yes develops everywhere and with renewed force commitment to education and any useful activity, and each, under the shadow of laws for all equally fair to all sponsors of the same, but enjoys the fruits of labors in the world of the innocent. The company, freed from the oppression of police restraints, for his part, showed the desire and ability to live and the wider initiative. Everything began to move, all the conspiracies and rushed to learn and to act: to open a host of new commercial and industrial enterprises, began construction of new routes, revived literature, created new organs of the press, and throughout society, along with hopes for the emperor, was the consciousness of the need to knit , joined work, without division into parties, in the name of all understand the desire for the common good, education and progress. It was clear, however, that the strong development of industry and trade and a major transformation of the administrative system is not possible with the existence of serfdom. The necessity and inevitability of the abolition of serfdom confessed to many more under Nicholas, especially since both seal populations in the first half of the XIX century, made in many places, feudal economy it costly for the landlords. Fear of revolution after the events in 1848 stopped, however, all enterprises of the Government, aimed at the gradual elimination of serfdom. Now, after the Crimean War, the issue was at first. Aware of the urgency of reforms, AA would not, however, conduct its dictatorial and tried to call the initiative on the part of the nobility. In the spring of 1856, immediately following the announcement of the manifesto of peace, the Emperor went to Moscow and, at the request of the Governor-General Earl Zakrevskogo soothe troubled by various rumors nobility, said that although he has no intention to abolish serfdom immediately, but that "the existing order of possession of souls can not remain unchanged" .- "Better," he said, "to abolish serfdom from above than to wait for the time when it itself will be lifted from the bottom ... I ask you, gentlemen, think about how to bring it to pass. Give my words the nobility for reasons. " But the nobility feared and popular unrest, and new unproven living conditions, and inept actions of the bureaucracy, and therefore in no hurry to take the initiative. Peasant Question sluggish and hesitant developed in the secret committee, made up of the old grandees, many of whom did not understand the merits of the case and related to the reform of hostility and indifference. In the aristocratic circles, the question being discussed in a handwritten note and a draft that went hand, printing has not yet been allowed to open discussion of this issue. Finally, in late 1857 Vilna governor-general Nazimova able to obtain a statement of the Lithuanian nobility provinces on the desirability of emancipation of the peasants without land, which Lithuanian landlords preferred to introduce inventory regulations that hampered their economic order. A. decided to immediately grasp this statement, despite the objections and concerns surrounding its dignitaries. It was found necessary to specify a particular program proposed reform. November 20, 1857 in the name of Nazimova was given a rescript, in which the king opened in the Lithuanian provinces noble provincial committees for the design of the new provisions of the peasants, and contain the following mandatory committees established reform: the whole land is recognized as the property of landlords, but the peasants were to be retained by their estates, they had to buy, in addition, they should have been allotted lands of the field in such size as to protect their life and they were given the opportunity to serve their obligations Treasury and the landlord.